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Monday, June 4, 2012

Helmut Loos: Large-Scale Data Analysis in Historical Musicology: Potential and Opportunities

We have, by now, sufficiently become aware of the limitations on writing music history governed by ideas, how it has pushed emphatic musicology far beyond much-maligned hero worship. A compelling alternative concept, however, has not yet been developed. New approaches to research allow for the development that the perspective of historical musicology has been broadened. Questions of reception, institutional affiliation, and social relativity of music have gained attention. With the expanding horizon, the source material that is to be evaluated by scholarship has also become more extensive.

The key problem lies in the management of the amount of data that is becoming accessible or has already become accessible. A major obstacle to finding a solution here is, in my view, aversion to quantitative methods as, for instance, displayed by Carl Dahlhaus with his apodictic rejection of all things he dismissed as “mere statistics” (bloße Statistik). Far from saying, erroneously, that statistics could present the solution to scholarly questions, it should be noted that through astute application of its resources, the sources for historical research can be significantly systematized, ordered, and broadened. Musicology has with RISM a basis for such considerations, which is unique in the humanities and, in my opinion, ideal.


Massendatenauswertung in der historischen Musikwissenschaft. Möglichkeiten und Chancen

Die Grenzen ideengeleiteter Musikgeschichtsschreibung, wie sie eine emphatische Musikwissenschaft weit über den vielgescholtenen Heroenkult hinaus betrieben hat, sind inzwischen hinlänglich bewusst geworden, ein überzeugendes Alternativkonzept ist jedoch bislang nicht entwickelt worden. Neue Forschungsansätze tragen der Entwicklung Rechnung, dass die historische Musikwissenschaft ihre Perspektive geweitet hat. Fragen der Rezeption, der institutionellen Anbindung und gesellschaftlichen Bedingtheit von Musik haben an Aufmerksamkeit gewonnen. Mit der Erweiterung des Horizontes ist auch das von der Wissenschaft auszuwertende Quellenmaterial umfangreicher geworden. Das Schlüsselproblem liegt in der Bewältigung der Datenmengen, die erschlossen werden bzw. bereits erschlossen worden sind. Ein großes Hindernis, hier eine Lösung zu finden, liegt meines Erachtens in der Aversion gegen quantitative Methoden, wie sie etwa Carl Dahlhaus mit seiner apodiktischen Ablehnung all dessen, was er als „bloße Statistik“ abgetan hat, zelebriert hat. Weit entfernt von der irrigen Auffassung, Statistik könne die Lösung wissenschaftlicher Fragestellungen darstellen, muss doch festgestellt werden, dass mit ihren Mitteln die Quellenbasis historischer Forschung bei kluger Anlage entscheidend systematisiert, geordnet und verbreitert werden kann. Die Musikwissenschaft verfügt mit RISM über eine Basis für solche Überlegungen, die in den Geisteswissenschaften singulär ist und meines Erachtens ideale Voraussetzungen bildet.

Peter Ackermann: Innovative Methods for Producing Catalogs of Works on the Basis of Sources Indexed in RISM Using the Example of G.P. da Palestrina

The projected online catalog of works has the goal to gather all known sources for every extant work by Palestrina (primarily based on the RISM database), to catalog and describe them, and to settle numerous remaining questions of authenticity. A new point of departure is creating a digital reference score for each individual work that diplomatically reproduces the mensural notation of the source and arranges the parts, score-like, underneath each other. In this reference score, the additional step will be taken to enter variations that appear in all datable sources from before ca. 1800 and illustrate them accordingly. In this way, sources that refer to an individual work are not only named and described, but at the same time their specific contents are directly and visually conveyed to the user.

 

Innovative Verfahren zur Herstellung von Werkverzeichnissen auf der Basis der bei RISM nachgewiesenen Quellen am Beispiel G. P. da Palestrina

Das geplante Online-Werkverzeichnis hat das Ziel, zu jedem der überlieferten Werke Palestrinas – vornehmlich auf der Basis der RISM-Datenbank – sämtliche bekannten Quellen zu erfassen, diese zu katalogisieren, zu beschreiben sowie zahlreiche noch ausstehende Authentizitätsfragen zu klären. Neu ist der Ansatz, zu jedem einzelnen Werk eine digitale Referenzpartitur zu erstellen, die das mensurale Schriftbild der Bezugsquelle diplomatisch genau wiedergibt, die Stimmen jedoch partiturartig untereinander anordnet. In diese Referenzpartitur werden in einem weiteren Arbeitsschritt die Varianten aller vor ca. 1800 datierbaren Quellen eingetragen und mit entsprechenden graphischen Mitteln veranschaulicht. Auf diese Weise sollen die auf das einzelne Werk bezogenen Quellen nicht nur benannt und beschrieben, sondern zugleich auch deren spezifische Inhalte dem Nutzer optisch direkt vermittelt werden.

Niels Krabbe and Axel Teich Geertinger: MEI (Music Encoding Initiative) as a Tool for Thematic Catalogs - Thoughts, Experiences, and Preliminary Results

The Danish Centre for Music Publication (DCM) was founded in the spring of 2009, building on the philological expertise of The Carl Nielsen Edition, which had published its 33rd and final volume in March 2009. The purpose of the DCM was, by nature, broader than that of The Carl Nielsen Edition, standing so to speak on two legs: one is the edition of unknown music kept in the library to be used by scholars and musicians and based on a philological approach, the other is the development of ways to disseminate the results of the Centre’s work via the internet. The latter aim has resulted in developing a system for storing and presenting data, especially related to thematic catalogs, based on MEI (Music Encoding Initiative) XML. At present, the software developed at the DCM, called MerMEId (Metadata Editor and Repository for MEI Data), is used for catalogs-in-progress for the works of Carl Nielsen, Johan Svendsen, J. P. E. Hartmann, Niels W. Gade, and J. A. Scheibe. In a further perspective, MEI enables the integration of detailed metadata with the full music text, including variants and emendations within the same file in a format that is interchangeable with other software such as a graphical note editor. In our presentation, we will outline the ideas and principles behind the MerMEId software and briefly demonstrate its use, from the point of view of both the editor and the user. 

Daniel Röwenstrunk: Prospects for Linking RISM and Edirom Online

While RISM provides a huge amount of catalog data, publications of digital music editions with Edirom Online usually contain one or at most a couple of musical works, each with a varying number of primary sources. Thus, even if both resources, RISM and Edirom Online, focus on musical documents, the underlying data, their presentation, and the methods for generating and preparing them turn out to be very different. Why then should these tools be interlinked and what would such a linkage look like?

From the perspective of publications with Edirom Online, on the one hand, the benefits of linking to data in the RISM OPAC seem to be obvious. One may imagine, for example, searching the RISM catalog for primary sources related to a composer who was mentioned in an edition, or seeing information from the RISM database that is displayed directly in an edition from Edirom Online. The RISM catalog may, of course, already be used during the creation of an edition; even automated integration of metadata is possible.

The reverse procedure would be to place links in RISM that point to editions dealing with a certain source, which probably would provide additional or complementary information regarding the nature and content of the document. On the other hand, the advantage of this may not be immediately apparent to everyone. Detailed descriptions, commentaries, and sometimes even complete transcriptions of the music could, for example, help to find relationships between primary texts in RISM and thus increase data quality. These possibilities perhaps compensate for the small number of available publications in Edirom Online.

During this talk, the possibilities and benefits of linking these two services in both directions and the necessary interfaces, techniques, and formats are going to be outlined, presented, and discussed.



Perspektiven für eine Verknüpfung von RISM und Edirom Online

Während RISM ein riesiges Volumen an Katalogdaten zur Verfügung stellt, umfassen Publikationen mit Edirom Online in der Regel ein oder höchstens eine kleine Anzahl musikalischer Werke jeweils mit einer variierenden Anzahl von Quellen. Auch wenn demnach beide Ressourcen, RISM und Edirom Online, musikalische Quellen in den Fokus ihres Angebots rücken, fallen die daraus resultierenden Daten, deren Darstellung und die Methoden zur Gewinnung und Aufbereitung derselben höchst unterschiedlich aus. Warum also sollten diese Werkzeuge miteinander verknüpft werden und wie sollte das sinnvoll geschehen?

Aus der Sicht der Edirom Online Publikationen scheinen die Vorteile von Verknüpfungsmöglichkeiten zu Daten innerhalb des RISM OPAC offensichtlich; man stelle sich beispielsweise vor, zu einem in einer Edition erwähnten Komponisten die mit dieser Person verknüpften Einträge im RISM Katalog zu suchen, oder Informationen zu in der Edition herangezogenen Notentexten aus dem RISM-Angebot direkt in einer Edirom Online Publikation anzuzeigen. Selbstverständlich kann der Katalog bereits bei der Erstellung der Edition mit einbezogen, die Informationen zu einer Quelle gegebenenfalls sogar automatisch integriert werden.

Der Vorteil des umgekehrten Verfahrens, d. h. aus einem Eintrag im RISM OPAC auf etwaige Editionen zu verweisen, die zusätzliche bzw. ergänzende Informationen zur Beschaffenheit und dem Inhalt des Dokuments liefern können, ist demgegenüber vielleicht nicht für jedermann gleich ersichtlich. Hier stehen aber zum Teil sehr detaillierte Beschreibungen, Kommentare und eventuell sogar komplette Transkriptionen der Notentexte zur Verfügung, die auch Informationen zur Verknüpfung von Einträgen innerhalb von RISM enthalten können und damit die Erschließung vertiefen, der vergleichsweise geringen Anzahl verfügbarer Quellen in Edirom Online Publikationen gegenüber.

Im Rahmen dieses Vortrags sollen die Möglichkeiten und Vorteile der Verknüpfung der beiden Angebote in beiden Richtungen und die dafür notwendigen Schnittstellen, Techniken und Formate skizziert, präsentiert und diskutiert werden.

Catherine Ferris: RISM Activity in the UK and Ireland

In 2011, the RISM (UK) Trust, in partnership with Royal Holloway, University of London and British Library, secured funds for a pilot digitization and cataloging project called Early Music Online. About 320 of the British Library's anthologies of sixteenth-century printed music, mostly listed in RISM B/I, were digitized and images uploaded to Royal Holloway's repository.  The anthologies were documented in detail using international cataloging standards, with an inventory of the contents of each volume and access points for composers, places, printers and former owners. The catalog records were included in both the British Library catalog and RISM UK database, with a link to the digitized content embedded in each catalog record.  This was the UK’s first project to add records for printed music to the RISM UK database. Funding is currently being sought to extend the project.

RISM Ireland currently has three significant projects underway: Karol Mullaney-Dignam’s “Music in the Irish Country House,” which seeks to identify and catalog the music collections of selected country houses in Ireland and to interpret the historical context within which these collections were assembled, utilized, and maintained by the Irish landed elite in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; Tríona O’Hanlon’s “Mercer’s Hospital Part Books” which catalogs the contents of the Mercer’s Hospital Music Collection to reveal significant information regarding eighteenth-century Dublin repertoire, performance practice, the activity of copying, and how music was collated and stored; and Catherine Ferris’ “Music in the National Library of Ireland,” which seeks to locate and catalog the library’s pre-twentieth century music manuscripts, scores, and librettos (with a preliminary focus on uncataloged materials), comprising the country's most comprehensive collection of rare music materials.

Sonja Tröster and Birgit Lodes: Tracing Ludwig Senfl in Sixteenth-Century Sources: A Catalogue Raisonné in a Digital Environment

Libraries around the world have launched projects to have their valuable books digitized. As those digital collections are growing very fast, it often proves difficult to keep an overview of which sources are accessible and where to find them. Therefore it is necessary to have intermediary resources where the digital images as well as source-related information are compiled with a focus on a certain topic. In regard to musical sources, this function can be taken on by a catalogue raisonné for a composer, published online.

In 2008 a research project on Ludwig Senfl, one of the renowned composers of the first half of sixteenth-century Germany, started in Vienna under the direction of Birgit Lodes (University of Vienna). One branch of this project’s aim is an online database of the catalogue of Senfl’s works. Though many details from the entries in the forthcoming book are absent from the online version, it offers advantages of a different kind by bundling and providing easy access to the carefully selected information and digitized material available at various internet locations. The paper will introduce some of the possibilities of an online catalogue raisonné by presenting the Senfl database.

Klaus Pietschmann and Christiane Wiesenfeldt: The MassDataBase (MDB) at the Institute of Musicology, Mainz

Using as a basis the catalog of masses by Peter and Verena Schellert, a database with around 40,000 masses from the fourteenth century to the present time has been developed. It includes details about the state of extant copies, modern editions, and references to secondary literature. With the cooperation of the Department for Music Informatics of the Musicology Institute at the University of Mainz, it was converted into a relational online structure and is expected to be released to the public in consolidated form in mid-2012. In addition to explaining the current state of the database, we will also present potential plans for expansion pertaining to versions, musical characteristics, and liturgical use. This will also ensure a differentiated description of the materials that are already cataloged.

Die MessDatenBank (MDB) des Mainzer Musikwissenschaftlichen Instituts

Auf der Grundlage des Messenverzeichnisses von Peter und Verena Schellert entsteht derzeit eine Datenbank mit etwa 40.000 Messkompositionen vom 14. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart unter Angabe der Überlieferungssituation, moderner Editionen und Hinweisen zur Forschungsliteratur. Sie wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Abteilung für Musikinformatik des Musikwissenschaftlichen Instituts der Universität Mainz in eine relationale Online-Struktur überführt und soll Mitte 2012 in konsolidierter Form der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht werden. Neben einer Erläuterung des derzeitigen Standes der Datenbank werden die Ausbaumöglichkeiten vorgestellt, die weitere Parameter wie etwa Fassungen, musikalische Charakteristika und liturgische Verwendung betreffen und eine differenziertere Erschließung des bereits erfassten Materials gewährleisten sollen.

Jürgen Diet: Searching the RISM Data in the Future: Improved Content-Based Searching and Linking to Other Data Sources

This talk will give insight into the plans for the further developments of the RISM OPAC in the near future, especially improvements in content-based searching. Available technology from other projects will be explained that might be included in future RISM OPAC versions, like synchronization of score and audio in the PROBADO project and the melody search in the Petrucci library. Finally, linking between the RISM OPAC and other data sources (e.g., library catalogs and digital collections) will be discussed.

Anne Graham and Deborah Pierce: RISM Data as Metadata for Digital Collections

The University of Washington Music Library holds a collection of rare music manuscripts and early editions including a portion dating from the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries that are indexed in RISM’s series A/II  project. To meet the needs of off-site researchers and reduce handling of the rare and fragile originals, the University of Washington Libraries digitized this collection between 2007 and 2010 with funding from an internal Libraries grant.  A central enabling component of the digitization effort was the availability of RISM’s high-quality metadata provided in electronic form by the RISM Zentralredaktion.  The resulting online collection is freely available to any internet user and can be found at http://content.lib.washington.edu/mmweb.

This presentation will describe the methods that were used to transform the raw RISM metadata into standardized, searchable online metadata to accompany the visually rich display of navigable, printable, and zoomable images along with a description of the University of Washington Music Library Digital Scores Collection website, its functionality, and features.  Others who are interested in digitizing and displaying their RISM collections online may find our experience of manipulating the raw data and harnessing it to describe the digital images to be helpful. Copies of the data dictionary used to describe the collection’s metadata, including field origins, usage, format, and meanings, as well as mappings to Dublin Core, will be available to attendees.

Eva Neumayr: Using Watermarks to Identify Related Sources

In the Archive of the Archdiocese in Salzburg, a rather complete collection of sacred music of the Salzburg Cathedral from the end of the seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century has survived.

While cataloging the manuscripts for the RISM database, the watermarks of papers in this collection were routinely copied and filed. By now, a large part of the watermark drawings has been incorporated into a database, as was information on dating, papermakers and paper mills, copyists, etc. deduced from the collection as well as from the literature on watermarks. By combining this information, it has been possible to date and track musical manuscripts of Salzburg origin in other archives and to shed light on cultural transfers, thus reassessing the significance of the collection within a larger context.

Emanuel Wenger: Bernstein - The Memory of Paper: A Portal for Watermark Research

Bernstein is a project which was funded by the EU within the framework of the program eContentPlus. Its goal is the creation of a European integrated digital environment about paper history and expertise. The project connects European watermark databases and thus offers a comprehensive and significant information resource about paper. The databases are augmented by specialized image processing tools for measuring, authenticating, and dating papers and by a plenitude of contextual data with bibliographical and geographical contents.

This paper demonstrates the results of the project, in particular the multilingual portal www.memoryofpaper.eu which allows access to all the Bernstein components. It discusses standardization issues and gives an outlook on future developments. Bernstein is an open system and its usage is free of charge. The Bernstein Paper Studies Kit is a collection of free, downloadable and ready-to-use programs and data that enables the user to set up one’s own watermark database which can be connected to Bernstein.

Teresa M. Gialdroni: Clori, Archivio della cantata italiana da camera: Current State of Progress and New Perspectives

The aim of my paper is to present Clori, Archivio della cantata italiana. The main goal of Clori consists of realizing--and implementing--a database on the genre of the Italian chamber cantata. The database already exists and is available online at www.cantataitaliana.it. During my presentation I will show how it works in practice, with special emphasis on its potential as a research tool. In particular, I will touch upon some crucial aspects in the use of Clori, such as the issue of what can be considered a “cantata,” since the generic definition of cantata is all but univocal.
Finally, I will try to illustrate some practical cases in which Clori has given significant support to researchers. On several occasions, it has helped researchers to identify new cantata sources. In other instances, thanks to the presence of unusual data (i.e. the transcription of the whole poetic text), it helped to draw a much more accurate picture of some already known sources.

Laurent Pugin: The Use of METS for Delivering Digital Objects together with RISM Catalog Records

The Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) is a schema for describing metadata related to digital objects. While RISM projects increasingly involve digitization or the use of digitized sources, having appropriate standard techniques for archiving and distributing the data is highly desirable.

In this talk, I will investigate the use of METS for RISM projects for delivering digital images together with RISM catalog records. The challenges in using METS as applied to music sources will be addressed in particular.

Peter van Kranenburg, Geert-Jan Giezeman and Frans Wiering: An Alignment-Based Melodic Similarity Measure for RISM Incipits

One of the desired possibilities for searching music is to perform content-based retrieval.
Metadata like composer, title, instrumentation, etc. often do not capture all relevant aspects of the content of a score. For instance, if we want to retrieve all pieces with an occurrence of a specific theme, or if we want to find the composer of an anonymous piece, metadata are not sufficient.

The RISM database includes a huge amount of incipits. To search for melody patterns within those incipits, melodic similarity measures are needed. Development of such methods is a long-standing topic of interest in the research field of music information retrieval. The aim is not only to find exact matches to a queried melody, which is relatively easy from a computational point of view, but also to retrieve approximate matches, which is harder but musically more interesting. For example, a hymn melody might occur in various keys and various rhythmic variants, in e.g. organ preludes or cantata movements.

In this talk we will present a melodic similarity measure that is based on the construction of an alignment between two melodies in order to assess their similarity. The better the alignment succeeds, the more similar the melodies are. The method proved to be very successful in experiments on folksong melodies and will be integrated into the Dutch Song Database. We will show how alignment can be applied to the RISM incipits, and we will give a demonstration of some search results. The alignment software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/libmusical/.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Massimo Gentili-Tedeschi: Music Manuscripts as a Special Case toward the Extension of Bibliographic Descriptive Standards for Unpublished Resources

Scholars have generally considered manuscripts as items taking part in an archival context, and have described them accordingly; music manuscripts have a long cataloging tradition as library resources. Special cataloging rules have been produced for music manuscripts, but until now they have been considered very little in the general framework. As a consequence, different local solutions were adopted in the use of automated cataloging formats, with a negative effect on interoperability and research.

Things are changing: in RDA (Resource Description and Access), unpublished resources are given broader consideration, and the extension to unpublished resources of the ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) was approved in 2011, after the analysis of a draft focused on music manuscripts. These developments are leading to the implementation of new MARC tags. This paper will outline current issues and highlight the importance of music librarians and RISM in this process, thanks to their long-standing experience.

Undine Wagner: Archives of Lay Musicians as Evidence of Church Music Practice in Thuringia: Holdings at the Thuringian Regional Music Archive and Cataloging for RISM

In central Germany, and particularly in Thuringia, many towns and small cities had a form of amateur music-making, a tradition that lasted into the nineteenth century. Practitioners of this culture were called “adjuvants” (‘helpers,’ from the Latin adjuvare, ‘to help’), usually farmers or manual laborers who, along with suitable schoolchildren, put together the musical program for church services and special occasion ceremonies.

Music collections of these lay musicians from the archives in different parishes have survived to this day in various degrees of extent and condition. The arrangement, conservation, appropriate storage, and scholarly cataloging of these materials form the fundamental requirements for research on rural church music practice in Thuringia, repertoire studies, and accessing individual works for practical use (modern editions and performances).

Using selected materials from the Thuringian Regional Music Archive, the following questions will be explored: How are the music collections of each lay music archive put together? From which parishes do sources from the time before 1800 still exist? Where do copies from the nineteenth century predominate? Is the repertoire in these cases more retrospective or mostly current? Which genres were preferred? To what extent do music collections from lay music archives exhibit specific features and what does that mean for indexing with RISM? In connection with posing these questions, it will be discussed in detail what kind of knowledge—beyond the documenting of sources—can be gained through RISM cataloging.

 

Adjuvantenarchive als Zeugnisse der Kirchenmusikpraxis in Thüringen. Bestände im Thüringischen Landesmusikarchiv und deren Katalogisierung für RISM

Im mitteldeutschen Raum und insbesondere in Thüringen existierte in vielen Dörfern und kleineren Städten eine Form des Laienmusizierens, deren Traditionslinie bis ins 19. Jahrhundert reichte. Träger dieser Kultur waren die sogenannten Adjuvanten (Gehilfen, von lateinisch adjuvare: helfen), zumeist Bauern oder Handwerker, die zusammen mit geeigneten Schülern bei der musikalischen Ausgestaltung der Gottesdienste und Kasualien mitwirkten.

Notenbestände aus Adjuvantenarchiven verschiedener Kirchgemeinden sind in unterschiedlichem Umfang und Erhaltungszustand überliefert. Deren Erfassung, Restaurierung, sachgemäße Bewahrung und wissenschaftliche Katalogisierung bilden unabdingbare Voraussetzungen zur Erforschung der ländlichen Kirchenmusikpraxis in Thüringen, für Repertoirestudien und zur Erschließung einzelner Werke für die Musikpraxis (Notenausgaben, Wiederaufführung).

Anhand ausgewählter Bestände im Thüringischen Landesmusikarchiv soll auf folgende Fragen eingegangen werden: Wie ist der Musikalienbestand der jeweiligen Adjuvantenarchive zusammengesetzt? Von welchen Kirchgemeinden sind Quellen aus der Zeit vor 1800 überliefert? Wo überwiegen Abschriften aus dem 19. Jahrhundert? Ist das Repertoire in diesen Fällen eher retrospektiv oder weitgehend aktuell? Welche Gattungen wurden bevorzugt? Inwieweit weisen Notenbestände aus Adjuvantenarchiven spezifische Merkmale auf und was bedeutet das für die Verzeichnung bei RISM? In Verbindung mit diesen Fragestellungen soll erörtert werden, welchen Erkenntnisgewinn die RISM-Katalogisierung – zusätzlich zur Quellendokumentation – bringen kann.

Antonio Ezquerro Esteban: Cataloging Musical Sources: Spain and RISM. From Higinio Anglés to New Challenges

The recent history of cataloging musical sources in Spain has passed through several phases. From the very early times (when RISM was just an ambitious idea, after the Second World War), Spain was present in the international project with Higinio Anglés, maybe the most influential Spanish musicologist of the twentieth century. Since then, many things have changed and nowadays, knowledge of our documentary heritage and the ways and procedures with which to investigate it have grown, becoming almost a completely different discipline. But the core topics and questions, then and now, continue to be the same.

After the contributions to RISM by individual scholars (Anglés himself--as one of the founders of the original project--plus Querol, Llorens, López-Calo, Climent…), in 1990, thanks to González-Valle, a Spanish national branch of RISM was created. Several works have been done since that year, but for the most part, the needed background to start seriously working has been established: library sigla, authority files on specific musical genres of the Hispanic world, musical instruments, bibliography, etc. On the other hand, general knowledge about RISM among scholars of the Hispanic area (more than 20 countries sharing the same language and having similar musical repertories) is improving through a policy of specialized courses and seminars, etc. The present paper tries to point out the current main challenges of the project in relation to this wide area of 20 countries, from the point of view of the strategy, politics, and priorities to launch. As an important aspect to consider, this paper tries to explain how to link the works with an efficient employment of new technologies (OCR, recovering images of music incipits, etc.).

Andrea Hartmann: New Paths toward Collaboration with the SLUB Dresden

 

The Dresden RISM office, like the Munich office, is financed by the Academies' Programme of the Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz, and is thus a temporary project. In order to fulfill the project’s objectives within the time frame, opportunities to collaborate with independent cataloging projects (usually funded by third parties) have been increasingly pursued. Beyond such project-based partnerships, the Dresden RISM office works intensively with its host institution, the SLUB in Dresden. An agreement was reached in 2009 to divide the cataloging work of the SLUB holdings. Essentially, the Dresden RISM office is responsible for the holdings up to 1850, the Music Department of the SLUB for the more recent manuscripts. The Music Department catalogs manuscripts directly into the RISM database using Kallisto, adhering to RISM Germany’s minimum standards for completed catalog records. When music manuscripts are digitized, a link is made from the RISM OPAC to the digital collections of the SLUB. The RISM records can in turn be used for structuring the digital object’s content. An independent catalog of music manuscripts is no long maintained by the SLUB’s Music Department; the primary discovery tool for its holdings is the RISM OPAC. This paper will elaborate on the prospects of such cooperative efforts and the use of Kallisto in a large academic library.

 

Neue Wege in der Zusammenarbeit mit der SLUB Dresden

Die RISM-Arbeitsstelle Dresden wird wie die Arbeitsstelle in München durch das Akademienprogramm der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz finanziert und ist somit ein zeitlich befristetes Projekt. Um die Arbeitsaufgaben im Projektzeitraum zu erfüllen, wird verstärkt die Kooperation mit eigenständigen, meist drittmittelfinanzierten Katalogisierungsprojekten angestrebt. Über solche Kooperationen mit Projekten hinaus pflegt  die RISM-Arbeitsstelle  Dresden mit ihrer gastgebenden Institution, der  SLUB in Dresden, eine intensive Zusammenarbeit. Eine  im Jahr 2009 abgeschlossene Vereinbarung regelt die Aufteilung der zu erfassenden SLUB-Bestände. Im Prinzip ist  die RISM-Arbeitsstelle für die Bestände bis 1850 zuständig, die Musikabteilung der SLUB  für jüngere Manuskripte. Die Musikabteilung katalogisiert Handschriften direkt mit Kallisto in die RISM-Datenbank, wobei die für RISM-Deutschland geltenden Mindeststandards für die anzufertigenden Katalogisate  eingehalten werden sollen. Soweit Musikhandschriften digitalisiert werden, erfolgt eine Verknüpfung vom RISM-OPAC zu den Digitalen Sammlungen der SLUB. Die RISM-Titelaufnahme wiederum kann für die inhaltliche Strukturierung der Digitalisate genutzt werden. Einen unabhängigen Katalog der Musikhandschriften führt die Musikabteilung der SLUB nicht mehr, das primäre Nachweisinstrument für die Bestände ist der RISM-OPAC.  Über die Chancen einer solchen Kooperation und den Einsatz von Kallisto in einer großen wissenschaftlichen Bibliothek soll dieser Vortrag informieren.

Heidi Heinmaa: Musical Sources in Estonian Collections

In my presentation I will give a brief overview of the musical sources found in Estonian collections and talk about our future plans. At present, there does not actually exist a RISM working group in Estonia. Though it was founded in the mid-1990s, it could not succeed in contributing to the project because of a lack of both competence in describing old manuscripts and printed music, and all kinds of resources. Today, the situation has improved, and besides, international interest in getting information about source materials from online databases has increased in recent years. That is why it is very important to renew our working group and join the RISM project as soon as possible. However, some preparations, including special training, need to be made in order to start entering records into the RISM database.

Regarding the musical sources dated before 1850, a quite remarkable collection of printed music scores, including rare editions from the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries, and some manuscripts of high interest have survived to the present day. A few examples can be mentioned: the two Gloria fragments by John Dunstaple from c. 1350 to 1450, and Mozart’s autograph manuscripts of three solo cadenzas for the B-flat major piano concerto (K. 595). The more copious collections of printed music are stored in the Academic Library of Tallinn University, the National Library of Estonia, and the University of Tartu Library. The manuscripts can be found in the Estonian History Museum, the Estonian Theatre and Music Museum, the Tallinn City Archives, and the University of Tartu Library.

Hildegard Herrmann-Schneider: "Die Musikbibliographie ist die Grundlage alles historischen Wissens." On Today’s Relevance of Robert Eitner’s Central Idea from 1898

 

“Music bibliography is the foundation of all historical knowledge.”

This well-known observation from the fundamental work Biographisch-Bibliographisches Quellen-Lexikon der Musiker und Musikgelehrten [...] (Bio-Bibliographic Source Encyclopedia of Musicians and Music Scholars [...], 1st edition Leipzig, vol. 1 n.d., preface, dated 1898, p. 5) by the pioneer in music history source documentation, Robert Eitner, has retained, after more than a century, its validity even today. Even though the premises for source documentation have fundamentally changed for the better through, in particular, revolutionary technological developments relating to recording, presentation, and use, Robert Eitner’s statement is currently being challenged by the best possible inclusion of all available interdisciplinary resources.

The music catalog, based on scholarly criteria, is much more than a register of manuscripts or printed works. With its perspective and representation of sources in their local and regional context, it very often provides new, insightful knowledge about known and unknown compositions, personalities and music institutions. It is thus itself also a piece of written music history. The RISM office Tyrol-South Tyrol & OFM Austria  can easily provide evidence for this. Here just recently, during cataloging work, a previously unknown Allegro molto for piano by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was identified (see H. Herrmann-Schneider, “Das Allegro molto in C ‘del Signore Giovane Wolfgango Mozart’ [...]”, in Mozart-Jahrbuch, 2012). The latest source findings in Tyrol allow us to shed new light on, for example in this paper, the question of authorship of the Mass in B-flat major by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (KV C1.24), Franz Xaver Suessmayr (SmWV 816) or Kajetán Vogel (WeiVo deest), or to enrich the chapter “X: Dances” in the Leopold Mozart catalog of works (2010).

 

 

„Die Musikbibliographie ist die Grundlage alles historischen Wissens“. Zur Aktualität von Robert Eitners Leitgedanken aus dem Jahr 1898 heute

Die bekannte Feststellung aus dem fundamentalen Werk Biographisch-Bibliographisches Quellen-Lexikon der Musiker und Musikgelehrten [...] des Pioniers musikhistorischer Quellendokumentation (1. Auflage Leipzig, Bd. 1 o. J., "Vorwort", datiert 1898, S. 5)  besitzt auch heute noch, nach mehr als einem Jahrhundert, Gültigkeit. Nachdem sich die Prämissen für die Quellendokumentation insbesondere durch revolutionäre technische Neuentwicklungen hinsichtlich Erfassung, Präsentation und Nutzung grundlegend vorteilhaft verändert haben, kommt dem Statement von Robert Eitner gegenwärtig eine große Herausforderung mit dem bestmöglichen Einbezug aller erreichbaren fächerübergreifenden Ressourcen zu.

Der nach wissenschaftlichen Kriterien verfasste Musikalienkatalog stellt weit mehr als eine Auflistung von Handschriften oder Drucken dar. Er bringt mit seiner Sicht und Darstellung der Quellen in ihrem lokalen und überregionalen Kontext sehr oft neue aufschlussreiche Erkenntnisse zu bekannten wie unbekannten Kompositionen, Persönlichkeiten oder Musikinstitutionen. Er wird so auch zu einem Stück Musikgeschichtsschreibung. Dafür konnten durch die RISM-Arbeitsstelle Tirol-Südtirol & OFM Austria vielfach Belege geliefert werden. Soeben erfolgte hier im Rahmen der Katalogisierungsarbeit die Identifizierung eines bislang unbekannten Allegro molto für Klavier von Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (s. H. Herrmann-Schneider, „Das Allegro molto in C ‚del Signore Giovane Wolfgango Mozart’ [...]“, in: Mozart-Jahrbuch, 2012). Neueste Quellenfunde in Tirol lassen es zu, in diesem Vortrag zum Beispiel die fragliche Autorschaft der Messe in B-Dur von Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (KV C1.24), Franz Xaver Süßmayr (SmWV 816) oder Kajetán Vogel (WeiVo deest) neu zu beleuchten oder etwa das Kapitel „X: Tänze“ im Leopold-Mozart-Werkverzeichnis (2010) zu bereichern.

 

Stefan Ikarus Kaiser: The Music Collection at Wilhering Abbey

The historical music archive of Wilhering Abbey, near Linz in Upper Austria, contains over 1,400 musical sources and is considered to be one of the most important collections of music in Austria. The long music tradition of the Cistercian abbey, which was founded in 1146, still continues to this day in the practice of regular High Mass with orchestral accompaniment and with a certain emphasis on organ music. The abbey church has two famous historic organs by the Austrian organ builders Nikolaus Rummel (1746) and Leopold Breinbauer (1884). The historic music archive documents this extensive practice especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Besides copies of musical works by a number of central European composers, there are manuscripts by some well-known Austrian composers who maintained contact with the abbey either by working as chorus masters, organists, or copyists; or through personal acquaintances, for example Matthias Pernsteiner, Father Hugo Dürrnberger, Adolf Festl, Ignaz Arnleitner, and Anton Bruckner and his pupil Karl Borromäus Waldeck. Therefore, works by these composers ended up in the archival holdings as autograph manuscripts, copies, or printed music. Over half of the music holdings were documented through earlier RISM card indexes. Revising and supplementing these RISM data according to the latest research began in 2011. This paper gives a report on these current activities in the music archive.

 

Die Musiksammlung des Stiftes Wilhering

Das historische Musikarchiv des Stiftes Wilhering bei Linz in Oberösterreich mit seinen über 1400 Musikalien zählt zu den bedeutenden Sammlungen dieser Art in Österreich. Die lange Musiktradition der bereits im Jahr 1146 gegründeten Zisterzienserabtei hält bis zum heutigen Tag mit der Pflege von regelmäßigen Orchestermessen an den Feiertagen und einem Schwerpunkt auf der Orgelmusik an. Die Stiftskirche besitzt zwei historisch wertvolle Orgeln der österreichischen Orgelbaumeister Nikolaus Rummel (1746) und Leopold Breinbauer (1884). Das historische Musikarchiv dokumentiert diese reichhaltige Praxis insbesondere im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Neben den überlieferten Abschriften von Werken einer weit gestreuten Anzahl an mitteleuropäischen Komponisten stand eine Reihe von österreichischen Musikern auch in persönlicher Verbindung mit Stift Wilhering, sei es durch ihre ausübende Tätigkeit als Chorregenten, Organisten und Schreiber im Stift, sei es durch persönliche Bekanntschaften, so etwa Matthias Pernsteiner, P. Hugo Dürrnberger, Adolf Festl, Ignaz Arnleitner, Anton Bruckner oder sein Schüler Karl Borromäus Waldeck. So gelangten Werke dieser Komponisten als Autographe, Abschriften oder seltene Drucke in das Musikarchiv. Knapp die Hälfte dieses Archivs wurde bereits durch frühere RISM-Aufnahmen dokumentiert. Diese Einträge werden seit dem Beginn des Jahres 2011 auf dem neuesten Forschungsstand laufend revidiert und um weitere Nachweise ergänzt. Im Vortrag wird ein Bericht über die laufenden Arbeiten im Musikarchiv gegeben.

Annemarie Bösch-Niederer: "… haben diese Klosterfrauen eine schöne Musicam von Stimmen und Instrumenten." On Music in Convents: New Discoveries from Vorarlberg, Austria

"...such lovely voices and instruments these nuns have..."

The Austrian province Vorarlberg is embedded in a culturally and historically significant region where a lot of monasteries exist: in the west, Einsiedeln and St. Gallen; in the north, Weingarten, Ottobeuren, Kempten; and in the south, the bishopric Chur with St. Lucii.

Findings of old music manuscripts and prints as well as and inventory sheets suggest that the region was affected by these monasteries in economic and cultural ways. Unfortunately many significant documents were sold or burned when the monasteries were disbanded, such as the collection of documents from the Benedictine Mehrerau Abbey. The same happened to many convents whose music patronage was mentioned in sources as being very good. Therefore, the discovery of music in the Dominican convent in St. Peter, near Bludenz, is especially welcome, as it illustrates nationwide communication in the areas of music and culture.

 

"… haben diese Klosterfrauen eine schöne Musicam von Stimmen und Instrumenten." Zur Musik in Frauenklöstern – neue Funde aus Vorarlberg

Die Region des heutigen österreichischen Bundeslandes Vorarlberg liegt eingebettet in eine kulturhistorisch bedeutsame Klosterlandschaft:  im Westen Einsiedeln und St. Gallen, im Norden Weingarten, Ottobeuren, Kempten, im Süden die Bischofsresidenz Chur mit St. Lucii. Ein Faktum, das wirtschaftlich wie auch kulturell die Region prägte. Notenfunde und Inventarverzeichnisse in regionalen Archiven lassen wichtige Verbindungen erkennen. Leider wurden bedeutende Sammlungen bei Klosteraufhebungen verkauft oder verbrannt, wie jene der ehemaligen Benediktinerabtei Mehrerau.  Betroffen waren auch die Frauenklöster, deren Musikpflege in Quellen lobend hervorgehoben wird. Umso erfreulicher ist ein Musikalienfund im Dominikanerinnenkloster St. Peter bei Bludenz, der die überregionale Kommunikation im musikalisch -kulturellen Bereich veranschaulicht.


Vjera Katalinic and Lucija Konfic: Project RISM in Croatia – The Past Decade

Contemporary cooperation between Croatia and RISM has a rich history and significance. From the first impulses of Albe Vidaković, then the diligent fieldwork of Ladislav Šaban, to the project “Arranging, cataloging, and elaboration of music sources in Croatia,” headed by Dr. Stanislav Tuksar, the study of music collections and archives in Croatia has been presented on several occasions. The work of S. Tuksar, Vjera Katalinić, and Vedrana Juričić should be pointed out in particular.

V. Katalinić presented the history and present state of the project at the 50th anniversary RISM conference in March 2002 where she pointed out both the problems concerning work on the project as well as guidelines for future work. Although since then most of the problems have remained, and some plans for various reasons have not (yet) been realized, in this paper I will present the current state of the project, as well as point out some problems and specific issues the Croatian RISM team is facing as it introduces the Kallisto program to the RISM project in Croatia. Kallisto has been in use worldwide for some time now, but due to specific organizational and financial issues in Croatia, it was more appropriate to use an existing (variant) program ISIS which resulted with a kind of gap when dealing with specific work tasks and problems (e.g., conversion issues); such problems and dilemmas will be presented in the paper. Finally, I will focus on the importance of the RISM project in Croatia, especially in terms of its pedagogical function in working with students.

Helmut Lauterwasser: On Disappearing in One Big Pot: Distinct Collections of Church Music in Large Libraries, Small Church Archives in the RISM Database

This paper will describe, using selected examples, the possibilities of deep-level cataloging that the RISM database offers in order to continue to make smaller, formerly self-contained collections recognizable as such within large libraries. It should also be put up for discussion the fact that when processing a collection, background information, connections, and assumptions accumulate in the head of the processor—none of which can be directly integrated into the catalog record.

On the other hand, in the case of materials from the innumerable smaller places where such collections used to be housed, the danger exists that they could be cataloged as part of the general collection. But what options exist, and which should still be developed so that an overall picture comes out of the mosaic tiles?

 

Über das Verschwinden im großen Topf. Geschlossene Kirchenmusiksammlungen in großen Bibliotheken - Kleine Kirchenarchive in der RISM-Datenbank

Das Referat beschreibt anhand ausgewählter Beispiele, welche Möglichkeiten der Tiefenerschließung die RISM-Datenbank bietet, um kleinere ursprünglich geschlossene Bestände in großen Bibliotheken als solche weiterhin erkennbar zu machen. Es soll aber auch zur Diskussion gestellt werden, dass sich bei der Bearbeitung etliche Hintergrundinformationen; Zusammenhänge und Vermutungen im Kopf des Bearbeiters ansammeln, die nicht unmittelbar in die Katalogisate einfließen können.

Demgegenüber besteht bei den unzähligen kleineren Fundorten die Gefahr, dass diese als isolierte Bestände von einzelnen Mitarbeitern katalogisiert werden. Aber welche Möglichkeiten gibt es und welche sollten noch entwickelt werden, um aus den vielen Mosaiksteinchen ein Gesamtbild entstehen zu lassen?

Mattias Lundberg: The Swedish RISM Working Group in Relation to National and Regional Projects of Archival Research and Music Bibliography: Where to Go from Here?

The Swedish RISM working group was founded in 1953 and has ever since been based at what is presently the Music and Theatre Library of Sweden in Stockholm (formerly the Library of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music). A number of its early principles and strategic decisions have had considerable consequences for all later RISM work and for archival scholarship in Sweden as a whole. One of these was, for example, the decision not to include manuscripts of Lutheran chorales (koralhandskrifter) and similar liturgical sources in the A/II cataloging process. This material has later been examined and collated within another project at the University of Lund, "Svensk koralregistrant," an index with a comparative apparatus for Swedish liturgical sources of chorales.

A number of other projects, which in different ways complement or overlap the ongoing RISM work, have later been initiated, for example Music in Tablature: A Thematic Index with Source Descriptions of Music in Tablature Notation in Sweden, ed. Jan Olof Rudén (Stockholm, 1981), the Düben Collection Database Catalogue at the University of Uppsala (1991–), and the Swedish Musical Heritage project at the Royal Academy of Music (2011–). How could the different principles and methodologies of all these ongoing projects be brought into mutual interplay for the benefit of current research and librarianship? This paper will address some fundamental problems and suggest solutions and strategies for the future.

Franz Jürgen Götz: Musical Figures - The Transmission of Music Notation in the Visual Arts

A marginal area of direct contact between the Répertoire International des Sources Musicales and the Répertoire International d’Iconographie Musicale is the representation of musical notation in art. Most famous examples of this genre are the so-called “pictorial motets.” But the heritage of musical notation in art has a much broader range. Based on the documentation of RIdIM Germany, some of the diverse manifestations will be presented by means of examples. Some aspects of musical notation in art will thereby be in focus, from identification to the functions of this kind of representation in art.

Notenbilder – Überlieferung von musikalischer Notation in der bildenden Kunst

Ein kleines Randgebiet, in dem sich die Arbeiten des Répertoire International des Sources Musicales und des Répertoire International d’Iconographie Musicale direkt überschneiden ist die Darstellung musikalischer Notation in der Kunst. Prominentestes Beispiel dieses Genres sind die sogenannten „Bildmotetten“, doch der Quellenfundus ist viel reicher. Anhand von Beispielen aus der Dokumentation der deutschen RIdIM-Arbeitsstelle werden verschiedene Formen vorgestellt und dabei auf notwendige Aspekte und Fragestellungen eingegangen werden, die von der Identifizierung bis zum Funktionszusammenhang der Darstellung musikalischer Notation in der Kunst reichen.

 

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

Steffen Voss: The Instrumental Repertoire of the Dresden Court: A Report on the DFG Project at the SLUB Dresden

In a project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), the so-called Schrank II collection was cataloged and digitized at the Sächsischen Staatsbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden (SLUB/Saxon State Library – Regional and University Library Dresden). This collection is an extensive inventory of instrumental music from the Dresden court dating from the first half of the eighteenth century, a large part of which was in the possession of the concertmaster Johann Georg Pisendel. Among the holdings are autograph manuscripts and copies of works by Antonio Vivaldi, which date back to Pisendel’s sojourn to Venice in 1716, as well as autograph manuscripts by distinguished masters such as Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Friedrich Fasch, Jan Dismas Zelenka, and Tommaso Albinoni.

In the course of cataloging with the Kallisto database system, carried out in close cooperation with the Dresden RISM office and the Frankfurt Zentralredaktion, an intensive analytical study was carried out. This resulted in exact identification and classification of various watermarks and copyist hands, which in turn produced new information about the provenance and dating of the collection. Furthermore, numerous anonymous pieces were identified and misattributions were corrected. In addition, the precise extent of the collection could be specified, including the first survey of the few music prints that belong to Schrank II.

This paper will review the project and show how this information can be accessed through the RISM OPAC.

 

Das Instrumentalmusikrepertoire der Dresdner Hofkapelle – Ein Erfahrungsbericht über das DFG-Projekt an der SLUB Dresden

In einem von der DFG geförderten Projekt an der Sächsischen Staatsbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden wurde 2008-2011 die sogenannte „Schrank II-Sammlung“ erschlossen und im Internet präsentiert. Bei dieser Sammlung handelt es sich um den umfangreichen Bestand von Instrumentalmusik der Dresdner Hofkapelle aus der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts, der zum größten Teil auf den Nachlass des Konzertmeisters Johann Georg Pisendel zurückgeht; darunter befinden sich die Abschriften und Autographe von Werken Antonio Vivaldis, die auf Pisendels Venedig-Aufenthalt 1716 zurückgehen, aber auch Autographe so bedeutender Meister wie Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Friedrich Fasch, Jan Dismas Zelenka oder Tommaso Albinoni.

Während der Katalogisierung mit dem Datenbanksystem Kallisto, die in enger Zusammenarbeit mit der RISM-Arbeitsstelle Dresden und der Frankfurter Zentralredaktion erfolgte, fand eine intensive philologische Untersuchung der ca. 1800 Quellen statt, in deren Folge eine genaue Identifizierung und Klassifizierung der verschiedenen Wasserzeichen und Schreiberhände erfolgte, die neue Aufschlüsse über Provenienz und Datierung der Sammlung ergeben. Zudem konnten zahlreiche Anonyma identifiziert bzw. Fehlzuschreibungen ermittelt werden und der genaue Umfang der Sammlung weiter spezifiziert werden, etwa durch die erstmalige Ermittlung der wenigen dem Schrank II zugehörigen Drucke.

Im Vortrag soll neben einem Rückblick auf das Projekt gezeigt werden, wie mittels Recherche im RISM-OPAC diese Informationen abgerufen werden können.

Laurence Decobert: The RISM France Portal: Content and Prospects

The main innovation for RISM in France has been the launch of the portal RISM France, part of the Catalogue collectif de France (CCFr/Union Catalogue of France) in June 2011. RISM France provides access to the records of printed music and music manuscripts of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (from the BnF Catalogue général), and from there, to the digital music collection available on Gallica. Moreover, RISM France stores more than 34,000 records resulting from the conversion of the French Patrimoine musical régional printed catalogs.

During the coming months, several developments are expected in the RISM database, including the display and indexing of the music incipits in the records of the BnF Catalogue général.

 

Le portail RISM France : contenu et perspectives

Le portail RISM France, ouvert depuis juin 2011, fait partie du Catalogue Collectif de France (CCFr) hébergé par la Bibliothèque nationale de France. Il donne accès à 58.000 notices d’imprimés et de manuscrits musicaux antérieurs à 1820 conservés en France. Les notices sont issues de plusieurs sources : les catalogues papier du Patrimoine musical régional français qui ont été convertis (plus de 34000 notices d’imprimés et manuscrits) ; les notices des manuscrits musicaux de la BnF en cours de catalogage (environ 8000 notices), et celles de tous les imprimés musicaux anciens des bibliothèques publiques de Paris. Chacun de ces ensembles sera présenté avec ses particularités. Plusieurs types d’évolutions sont envisagées, parmi lesquelles l’affichage des incipit musicaux pour les manuscrits musicaux de la BnF et l’indexation de ces incipit.

 

Metoda Kokole and Klemen Grabnar: RISM in Slovenia in the Past Decade: Newly Catalogued Music Collections, Especially Early 17th-Centuty Choirbooks

Slovenian musicologists started to collaborate with RISM in the late 1950s by contributing data on early music prints, theoretical treatises, and opera libretti. From the 1960s, early music manuscripts to 1850 were recorded. By now, the RISM group from Slovenia has contributed approximately 2,900 records to the A/II RISM database. In the last 10 years a group of music collections from the coastal area of Slovenia were for the first time ordered, cataloged, and included in RISM (SI-Kš, Ko, Kp, PIž, PIm, and Im).

Among the latest sources to be cataloged for RISM are five well-preserved choirbooks that originated in Graz, copied around 1600, that are now preserved at the National and University Library in Ljubljana. Most of them were compiled by the Graz court singer Georg Kuglmann. During the first decades of the seventeenth century they came into possession of the then Prince-Bishop of Ljubljana, Tomaž Hren. They contain liturgical music (above all mass settings and Magnificats, but also litanies, hymns, Marian antiphons and psalms) by Italian and also Flemish composers active – at least for a while in their career – in the Catholic area of southern Germany. Hren’s choirbooks have been the subject of some scholarly attention, though not yet in a detailed manner. Up to now this kind of repertoire – mensural polyphonic music – also has not been cataloged by the Slovenian RISM group. This paper will discuss some questions which arose by cataloging the sources in question with the program Kallisto.

Cheryl Martin: Canadian Music Resources in RISM

Only a small number of music resources from Canada are included in RISM. I will highlight some of the recently added resources and discuss my plan for expanding Canadian holdings in RISM. These new resources include the 16th-century Salzinnes Antiphonal held at St. Mary’s University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, a 600-page choral collection at Western University called William White, his book, and several Mozart manuscripts at the University of Toronto.

Ludmiła Sawicka: The RISM Working Group at the Warsaw University Library and the Project to Catalog Old Dispersed Manuscripts of Silesian Origin, in Particular the Works of Johann Georg Clement (Wrocław, Warsaw and Krzeszów)

The largest collection in the Music Department at the University Library in Warsaw (PL-Wu) is formed by the holdings of the former Musical Research Institute at the University of Wrocław (Poland), which was handed over to Warsaw in 1952. The reason for transferring the collection after the opening of a new musicological institute there was to counterbalance the immense loss of Polish cultural assets in Warsaw during the Second World War.  There are about 15,000 old music manuscripts, prints, and books. Portions of the collection that had been deposited at the University Library in Wrocław (PL-WRu) by the beginning of the 1950s have remained there. The provenance of most of the Warsaw holdings is the collection of the Musical Institute Breslau, which existed until 1945 as the successor to the Royal Institute for Church Music.

Since 2007, a RISM working group has been active at the University Library in Warsaw, cataloging the old Wrocław collections. Work on this is not yet completed. At this time, collections are being processed that are related to Weisse and Pius Hancke. We have also succeeded in identifying numerous additional copies of works by Johann Adolf Hasse. In addition, autograph sources by the Wrocław cathedral music director Johann Georg Clement are being processed, which are stored in the University Library in Warsaw as well as the Wrocław Cathedral Archive (PL-WRk) and the Benedictine abbey in Krzeszów (PL-KRZ).

 

Die RISM-Arbeitsgruppe in der Universitätsbibliothek zu Warschau und das Projekt Katalogisieren von alten zerstreuten Handschriften schlesischer Herkunft. Im Besonderen die Werke von Johann Georg Clement (Breslau, Warschau und Grüssau)

Den größten Teilbestand der Musikabteilung der Universitätsbibliothek zu Warschau [PL-Wu] bildet die Sammlung des ehemaligen Musikalischenforschungsinstitutes der polnischen Universität Wrocław, die im Jahre 1952 nach Warschau übergeben wurde. Grund für die Übergabe war, die immensen Verluste polnischen Kulturgutes im Zweiten Weltkrieg in Warschau auszugleichen, nachdem dort an der Universität ein neues Musikwissenschaftliches Institut eröffnet worden war. Es sind etwa 15.000 Signaturen von alten Musikhandschriften, Musikdrucken und an Musikliteratur zu verzeichnen. Teile, die bis Anfang der fünfziger Jahre in der Universitätsbibliothek zu Breslau [PL-WRu] deponiert wurden, sind dort verblieben. Die größte Provenienz des Warschauer Bestandes bildet die Sammlung des Musikalischen Institutes Breslau, das als Nachfolger des Königlichen Institutes für Kirchenmusik bis 1945 bestanden hatte.

Seit dem Jahre 2007 ist in der Universitätsbibliothek zu Warschau eine RISM-Arbeitsgruppe tätig, die die Katalogisierung der alten Breslauer Sammlungen vornimmt.
Die Arbeiten sind noch nicht abgeschlossen. Zur Zeit werden die Sammlungen bearbeitet,
die mit Weisse und Pius Hancke verbunden sind. Es ist uns auch gelungen, weitere zahlreiche Abschriften von Werken Johann Adolf Hasses zu identifizieren. Außerdem werden handschriftliche Quellen des Breslauer Domkapellmeisters Johann Georg Clement bearbeitet, die nicht nur in der Universitätsbibliothek zu Warschau aufbewahrt werden, sondern auch im Domarchiv zu Breslau [PL-WRk] und im Benediktinerkloster Grüssau [PL-KRZ].

Emilia Rassina: Current Work of RISM in Russia

Russian libraries have been participating in RISM since 1973. At that time, the S. I. Taneev Research Music Library began sending information about its rare printed sources to RISM. Through the joint efforts of the Taneev Library and the RSL, we were then able to contribute data to RISM’s volumes in the course of creating and publishing the bibliographic index of printed music in Russia from the first half of the nineteenth century. This project took into consideration data from the ten most important collections in the country.

At the end of the 1990s, work on the union catalog of Russian printed music sources was started, carried out by the National Library of Russia. This catalog consists of data from the holdings of more than fifty libraries and institutions. Through this process, a resource about printed music sources from eighteenth-century Russia was completed, and the volumes with these records were sent to RISM. Therefore, RISM currently has an almost complete presentation of music printed in Russia before 1850.

The S. I. Taneev Research Music Library, being the largest library in Russia in the area of classical music, houses about 4,000 manuscripts, including works of different periods, styles, genres, and composers. Recently, bibliographic descriptions of manuscripts of works by foreign composers from the eighteenth to the first half of the nineteenth centuries have been sent to RISM. During this period, information about almost 2,000 sources was sent to RISM. In 2010–2011, a special program was created which will allow in the near future the electronic bibliographic descriptions of manuscripts to be transferred to RISM's database.

Beatriz MagalhaesCastro: RISM Brazil in Relation to Ibero-American RISM Projects: A Contextual Problem in Cross-Cultural Reference and Information Retrieval

The admittedly brief discussion proposed here aims to review aspects of the historical trajectory of Ibero-American RISM groups and their problems in solving challenges regarding context and culture as juxtaposed to international demands. The discussion also focuses on specialized scholar research in its needs and issues concerning cross-cultural reference and information retrieval as means to broaden perspectives in the construction of knowledge of musical phenomena where a globalized context becomes central to its comprehension. I will first draw examples from current personal research experience as illustrated in iconological, organological, and musical sources. Secondly, I will examine the experience of some Ibero-American RISM groups as drawn from research and personal visits. Thirdly, I will try to point to possible developments in the creation of improved networks of integrated initiatives in order to surpass obstacles and limitations in musicological research.

John G. Lazos: A Portrait of the Composer José Antonio Gómez: Encountering Independent Mexico through New Technologies

Archival research has allowed us to approach Mexico’s vast and rich music tradition. Among the manuscripts of eleven compositions by five nineteenth-century Mexican composers discovered at the Historical Diocesan Archives of San Cristóbal de Las Casas in Chiapas in 2005 (see RISM’s database) was one with the name of José Antonio Gómez y Olguín (1805-1876). While he was for many years first organist of the Mexico City Cathedral, in the secular milieu Gómez was also a pianist, professor, editor, arranger, founder of a conservatory and publisher of methods (theory, voice and piano) and a music journal. Based on his prestige, he led the committee that chose the national anthem.  It is through rediscovering Gómez that I have been able to trace the musical legacy of Independent Mexico.  

This research and cataloging is completely reliant upon multimedia options, such as digitalization and database cataloging. Not only do these essential tools give access to valuable sources, we can also compare research between linked musical repertoires that are physically distant. The continued discovery and cataloging of compositions in manuscript and published form are not only expressions of musical taste and performance practice, but they are also important historic documents that shed light on the social, religious and even political events. I would like to share part of this history that speaks to a time of political transition through one of Mexico’s central figures from the nineteenth century: Gómez.

Alina Mądry: A Collection of Music Manuscripts from the Archive of the Archdiocese in Poznań (St. Maria Magdalena Collegiate Church)

One of the music collections currently kept at the Archdiocesan Archive in Poznań is the repertory bequeathed by the parish church and municipal music band operating in Poznań until as late as the first half of the nineteenth century. The year 1668 marked the establishment of the music band of St. Mary Magdalene’s Collegiate Church, which would, until 1773, serve as Poznań’s parish church. At that time, the city witnessed the rise of other music bands. Settling in Poznań at the end of the sixteenth century, the Jesuits exerted a positive influence on the cultural development of the city. 1773 saw the suppression of the Jesuit order, and St. Mary Magdalene’s Collegiate Church burned down. In 1802, the former Jesuit church was promoted to the rank of parish church, which it has maintained until the present day. As early as 1774, the number of music bands officially recognized by the city council’s statute shrank to a single ensemble, which would perform the role of a permanent municipal orchestra. The music collection of the parish church and municipal music band discussed in the present paper constituted the repertoire of the very same ensemble.

At present, the collection is being analyzed, its catalog scheduled for publication this year, containing 340 items. The preserved repertoire contains pieces by both Polish and other European composers: masses, funeral masses/requiems, vespers and vesper psalms, litanies, arias, motets, offertories, graduals, passions and sequences, as well as instrumental music, chiefly symphonies. Apart from the manuscripts, 42 musical prints have been preserved. The musical collection of the Poznań parish church was transferred to the Archdiocesan Archive in 1974. 

Jaime Quevedo: Music Documentation, Identification, and Characterization--A Challenge to Catalog and Become Acquainted with the Musical Heritage of Columbia

Interest has only been recently awakened in documenting the practice and forms of music in Columbia. As part of that, music as a documentary object stands in the foreground, which clings to historical traditions of a living and collective sound memory, one that reflects the diversity and complexity of different communities and the tonal inheritance, its historical dimensions, developments, histories, places, institutions, motors, and protagonists. The collection, care, and spread of musical documentation present necessary yet complex processes, which necessitate institutionalization on a solid technical and scholarly level. Furthermore, this institutional consolidation is indispensable for bringing documentation to the public, lending it visibility and making the results available to music creators as well as scholars.

The actions that have been carried out and the experiences that have been gained have promoted interest not only in musical documents of different origins and various traditions, but also in unpublished musical documents.

This project presents a particular challenge that is not to be postponed, in that it, on the one hand, requires interdisciplinary approaches and, on the other hand, must face the rigidness of the tools that have been developed by archival and library sciences, showing no correspondence to the complexity of the object in question. After all, musicology is as a discipline marginalized in Columbia throughout one’s education. In opposition to this is the ambition to describe the documents about music from Columbia with exactness and solidarity.

In this context, electronic information technologies have advanced to become indispensable allies. They allow easy accessibility, interactivity, and expeditious visibility as well as the unfolding of this musical documentation project, which decisively contributes to the enrichment and publicizing of music in Columbia.

Documentación musical, identificación y caracterización, un reto de formación y conocimiento del patrimonio de la música en Colombia

Es reciente el interés por la documentación musical de las prácticas y expresiones de la música en Colombia, un recurso documental de tradiciones históricas y de una memoria sonora viva y colectiva, en la cual se refleja la diversidad y complejidad de las identidades, el patrimonio sonoro musical, sus legados, historias, trayectos, narrativas, escenarios, instituciones, agentes y actores. La compilación, el cuidado y la difusión de la documentación musical son procesos tan necesarios y complejos que requieren el establecimiento de una institucionalidad que lo aloje con solidez técnica y científica,  le dé curso a una política pública, lo haga visible, lo disponga al alcance de la creación y la investigación y propicie su apropiación. Las iniciativas y experiencias emprendidas  han generando interés en torno al documento musical que proviene de distintos orígenes y tradiciones, incluido el documento musical inédito. La perspectiva interdisciplinaria que implica su tratamiento, la rigidez técnica bibliotecológica y archivística para asumir su complejidad y el marginamiento de la disciplina musical desde la formación misma, se constituyen en un inaplazable reto, de manera que sea posible con el rigor y la solidez requerida la gestión de fondos documentales de la música en Colombia. En este panorama Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación se han constituido en un aliando indispensable que ha permitido una convocatoria ágil y participativa, una rápida visibilidad y el avance de un proyecto documental de la música que se consolida contribuyendo al enriquecimiento y la proyección de las prácticas y expresiones de la música en Colombia.

Hyun Kyung Chae: Establishing a Database of East Asian Music Educational Materials from the “Modern Era” [近代] as a Foundation for the Cultural Study of Music

Musical modernity in Korea, China, and Japan is closely interconnected with its political and socio-cultural circumstances, particularly colonialism and the introduction of Christianity. These two common threads have formed shared experiences, exerting a great impact on the lives of people and musical activities equally in the region to form a group identity during the modernization process. In fact, a vast array of primary sources of the modern time (from the end of the nineteenth century to 1945) such as hymns and songs reveal common provenances and attributes in their repertoires far beyond the region to Europe and the United States. I will discuss the close cultural connection evident in collected materials with specific examples and report on the process of building up a new database system that is appropriate for documenting primary sources as well as incorporating the OPAC system of RISM.